Guide Landscape and Change in Early Medieval Italy: Chestnuts, Economy, and Culture

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In the land of Westeros, a timely message dispatched via raven can make the difference between winning a battle and losing your kingdom. These deluxe stationery kits, themed to the Great Houses of Westeros, provide all the items you need to communicate Undergraduate Algebraic Geometry.

Early Medieval Europe 23 (2015), 3

Undergraduate Commutative Algebra. Understanding Autobiographical Memory : Theories and Approaches. Understanding Evolution. Understanding Foreign Policy Decision Making. Understanding Labor and Employment Law in China. The slowness of growth found in the two Tortworth branch stubs could aid attempts to date relatively small-dimensioned sweet chestnut wood samples, perhaps when analysing archaeological wood specimens where definition between Quercus and Castanea is often difficult.

Sweet chestnut would usually be assumed to grow faster than oak, but this study shows how slowly sweet chestnut can grow. Further research including a wider geographical selection of samples will be needed to make definitive analyses of typical growth rates and to identify growth rate transformation thresholds. However, the data shown for cumulative ring widths Figure 2 and decadal growth rates Figure 3 indicate the underlying biological age growth trend for these sweet chestnut trees.

One outcome from this research with potential application to studies of veteran sweet chestnut trees is the measured girth-to-age relationship. These data indicate a potential girth:age relationship for sweet chestnut that could assist the dating of girth-measured sweet chestnut trees, although the small sample size and restricted geographical representation necessarily make this relationship provisional pending further sampling.

The sweet chestnut trees in this study have been cross-matched successfully with oak reference series from a range of sites in England and in Brittany France. This outcome compares favourably with Romagnoli et al. Romagnoli et al. The successful cross-matching of the Croft and Littledean Hall chestnut series with oak from Brittany suggests that this chestnut:oak synchronisation can extend from England through to western France, at least.

In that context, the present work indicates the possibility of a pan-European ability to cross-match sweet chestnut between separate sweet chestnut populations and also with oak populations. There are four environmental contexts from which sweet chestnut wood has been sampled in the present study: ancient living trees, mature timber trees, coppice trees and deadwood.

Landscape and Change in Early Medieval Italy : Paolo Squatriti :

The presumption before the experiment with the Tortworth and Littledean Hall chestnut trees would have been that to core such old trees would be unproductive owing to rot, cavities and shake Schweingruber, Schweingruber, F. The cores from the two Tortworth trees from three limbs of the main tree and the trunk of the neighbouring tree showed this to be partially true — two of the cores could not be assessed owing to the close-grown and contorted nature of their rings. However, the other two cores could be ring counted and measured and were cross-matched into a combined chronology spanning 95 years.

This research has dated a regenerated stem from one of the collapsed boughs from this tree, providing a start date of AD this could indicate the approximate date of the bough collapse and might be able to be cross-referenced with one of the several landscape paintings that depict the Tortworth Chestnut at that period cf. Strutt, Strutt, J.

ART 106 Chapter 14 Late Medieval Italy (JAF)

Sylva Britannica: Or, portraits of forest trees distinguished for their antiquity, magnitude, or beauty. London : Longman. The Tortworth neighbour tree was also dated, giving a start date of AD The perspective drawing of Tortworth Court by J.

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  • The calculated start date of AD thus concurs with this historical evidence. The mature chestnut tree 2. This agrees with the findings of Mirchev et al. The coppice-grown stem 1. The successful age determination of this coppice tree does, however, inform the management history of this wood by indicating that the last coppice cut was in AD The failure to cross-match this tree is most likely a result of insufficient samples, management disturbances and a relatively short series of rings.

    However, Fonti et al. The Croft study represents a very significant outcome of the present research. The discovery of the long-dead chestnut tree in the Croft Castle parkland gave a rare opportunity to sample a nationally significant feature. The National Trust owner and manager of the Croft Castle estate does not normally allow potentially damaging interventions in historic landscapes, but supported this experiment because the history of the Croft landscape is presently being investigated Gallagher, Gallagher, C.

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    Croft Castle, Herefordshire: landscape analysis Research Report. National Trust , Swindon. The method for extracting the sawn sections from the fallen Croft chestnut tree proved straightforward, principally because the tree was structurally sound and at no risk of movement once cutting commenced. The Croft tree was remarkable for its well-preserved wood and the extent of the unbroken growth-ring sequence in a single section: the longest sawn radial section that was ring counted was 1.

    The section cut from higher up the trunk 3. Of especial value was the knowledge preserved for this Croft tree — in particular to know definitively from the feller of the tree that the cutting date was AD This enabled a cross-check of the growth-ring analysis — a known end date for the ring sections confirming a cross-match with oak reference series.

    The Croft example highlights the potential to extract sections from long-dead sweet chestnut trees and extend the regional and chronological history of sweet chestnut. The same potential presumably exists for even longer-dead timbers within preserved structures, such as archaeological sites or ancient buildings. Dendrochronologia , 32 , — This study indicates the potential for dendrochronological analysis of sweet chestnut trees to inform arboriculturalists, foresters, and estate and woodland managers on the cultural and biological significance of sweet chestnut trees in their care.

    The Croft example highlights the merits of recovering large deadwood sections from such sites to provide long sequences of growth rings, invaluable for historic landscape assessments. The original location and growth environment of recovered sections would need to be known for a meaningful assessment. The success of the Croft deadwood assessment also raises the possibility of sampling upstanding living trees that have accessible deadwood sections.

    Such deadwood could provide ring sequences to substitute for unmeasurable or rotted wood. Naturalised broadleaf trees — A call for a strategic reappraisal. British Wildlife , 28 , 13 — Managing our ancient trees.

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    • Deadwood resources have been shown here to provide valuable information for growth-ring analysis: this may avoid the need to core living trees. Shigo Shigo, A. Compartmentalization: a conceptual framework for understanding how trees grow and defend themselves. Annual Review of Phytopathology , 22 , — Grissino-Mayer Grissino-Mayer, H. A manual and tutorial for the proper use of an increment borer. Tree-Ring Research , 59 , 63 — To core, or not to core: The impact of coring on tree health and a best-practice framework for collecting dendrochronological information from living trees.

      Biological Reviews , 91 , — There are continuing discussions on the pros and cons of coring and whilst coring could be applied very selectively and carefully to survey sweet chestnut trees, to establish a representative geographical and typological series of reference chronologies, we identify here that taking sections from dead elements of standing or fallen veteran trees can be a useful alternative to coring living wood subject to conserving deadwood-dependent flora and fauna and cultural heritage interests.

      This study has not examined any archaeological wood or historic construction timber specimens, but there appears to be potential, theoretically at least, to date sweet chestnut wood specimens by cross-matching with oak reference chronologies.

      Landscape and Change in Early Medieval Italy: Chestnuts, Economy, and Culture

      There are only a few artefacts of sweet chestnut wood that have been recorded archaeologically in Britain, such as the Roman chisel handle described in Watson Watson, J. Mineral preserved organic material from the Corbridge hoard Report No. Tree-rings, forest history and cultural heritage: Current state and future prospects of dendroarchaeology in the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Archaeological Science , 57 , — They stated the need to develop master chronologies for specific tree species, so that ancient timbers can be dated, but only one longer-term chronology pre-AD for sweet chestnut was noted.

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      The present research may make a small contribution to the development of a dendrochronological reference series for sweet chestnut Castanea sativa. Geolocation Information: doi He was previously Adviser on Nature Conservation and Sustainability Director for the National Trust: he aims to be a geographer, historical ecologist and environmentalist.

      Andy K. He has worked on the tree-ring analysis of trees, timber-framed buildings and prehistoric timbers for over 25 years and has published numerous articles in these subject areas.

      go to link Her main areas of research interest lie within environmental change and its associated mechanisms. Frank M. His research interests lie in palaeoecology, climate change and environmental reconstruction, with a focus on mire, lake and archaeological sites. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. This research was assisted by Tree-Ring Services in support of a PhD student at the University of Gloucestershire researching the history and origins of sweet chestnut in Britain. Matthew Smith cut the sections for us at Croft Castle. Note: The italic values are indicates estimated values.

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